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Esboniad termau

 

Explanation of terms

Ar y tudalen hwn...

 

On this page...

 

 

Dulliau mesur Imperialaidd

 

Imperial measurements

Nid yw pawb heddiw yn cyfarwydd manylion yr hen ddulliau mesur imperialaidd, a ddefnyddiwyd yng Nghymru cyn dyfodiad y system fetrig. Felly dyma grynodeb o'r prif unedau mesur.

 

Not everyone is familiar today with the old imperial system of measurement, used in Wales before the arrival of the metric system. So here is a summary of the main units of measurement.

Hyd
1 modfedd = 2.54 centimedr
12 modfedd = 1 troedfedd = 30.48cm
3 troedfedd = 1 llathen = 91.44cm
5.5 llathen = 1 stang = 5.029 medr
22 llathen = 1 cadwynfedd = 20.08 m.
220 llathen = 1 ystaden = 201.1 m.
8 ystaden = 1 milltir = 1.609 km
Arwynebedd
1 modfedd sgwr = 6.45 sgw. cm.
144 modfedd sgw. = 1 troedfedd sgw. = 929 sgw.cm.
9 troedfedd sgw. = 1 llathen sgw. = 0.8361 sq. medr.
30.25 llathen sgw. = 1 perc = 25.29 sq.m.
40 perc = 1 rhwd = 1011.7 sq.m.
4 rhwd = 1 erw (= 4840 sgw. llathen) = .4047 hectare.
Gan amlaf, mae maint rhan o dir yn cael ei fesur mewn erwau, rhydau a pherciau.

 

Length
1 inch = 2.54 centimetres
12 inches = 1 foot = 30.48cm
3 feet = 1 yard = 91.44cm
5.5 yards = 1 pole = 5.029 metres
22 yards = 1 chain = 20.08m
220 yards = 1 furlong = 201.1m
8 furlongs = 1 mile = 1.609 km
Area
1 square inch = 6.45 sq. cm.
144 sq. inches = 1 sq. foot = 929 sq.cm.
9 sq. feet = 1 sq. yard = 0.8361 sq. metres
30.25 sq. yards = 1 rod or perch = 25.29 sq.m.
40 rods or perches = 1 rood = 1011.7 sq.m.
4 roods = 1 acre (= 4840 sq. yards) = .4047 hectares.
Usually, areas of land are measured in Acres, Roods and Perches.


 

Yr 'hen' arian

 

The 'old' money.

Defnyddiwyd sustem arianol gwahanol ym Mhrydain erbyn 1971.

 

Prior to 1971 Britain used a different monetary system.


Y sustem bresennol
100 ceiniog (100c.) = 1 punt (1)

 

The present system
100 pennies (100p.) = 1 pound (1)


Yr hen sustem
12 ceiniog (12c.) = 1 swllt (1s. neu 1/-)
20 swllt = 1 punt (1)

 

The old system
12 pennies (12d.) = 1 shilling (1s. or 1/-)
20 shillings = 1 pound (1)


Roedd nifer o bisiau arian ar led ar adegau gwahanol:
ffyrlingen(c.)
dimau (c.)
ceiniog (1c.)
darn tair [ceiniog] (3c.)
pisyn grt (4c.)
darn chwecheiniog (6c.)
pisyn swllt (1s. neu 1/-)
dau swllt, deuswllt, fflorin (2s.)
hanner coron (5s.)
double florin (4s)
coron, doler (5s.)
sofren (1) gini (1-1-0)

Fe gafodd sawl symiau ariannol enwau arbennig hefyd:
swllt a chwech, deunaw (18c.] (1/6)
chweugain [120c] (10s.)

 


There were a number of coins in circulation at various times:
farthing (d.)
ha'penny (d.)
penny (1d.)
thrupenny bit (3d.)
groat,slang joey (4d.)
sixpenny bit, tanner (6d.)
shilling, bob (1s. or 1/-)
florin (2s.)
half-crown (2/6)
double florin (4s.)
crown, slang dollar (5s.)
sovereign (1)
guinea (1-1-0). Also seven shilling piece (i.e. 1/3 of a guinea) and half-guinea (10/6)

Some sums of money had special names as well:
mark (13/4, i.e. 2/3 of a pound)[Mediaeval only]
quid (1)


 

Llongau

 

Boats

'Owns' (oz.) Roedd llongau yn cael eu rhannu mewn 64 o safbwynt perchnogaeth. Mae 'owns' yn 4 rhan, sef 1/16.

 

'Ounce' (oz.) Ships were traditionally owned in 64ths, and one ounce is four 64ths, or one 16th. A bill of sale (1847) of the Aberystwyth-registered schooner Salathiel (54 tons, built Derwen-las, 1842) also available (NLW, Machynlleth Deeds, box 16)



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